Minggu, 26 Agustus 2012

PRONOUNS (Kata Ganti)

PRONOUN adalah kata yang dipergunakan untuk mengganti kata benda seperti nama orang, binatang, dan kata benda lainnya. Agar tidak terjadi pengulangan- pengulangan kata benda
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

1. Personal Pronouns (Kata Ganti Orang)
A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.
a. Sebagai Subjek / subjective personal pronoun
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are “I,” “you,” “she,” “he,” “it,” “we,” “you,” “they.”
Contoh :
1.      I work alone = saya bekeerja sendirian.
2.      You are hungry = kamu lapar.
3.      We like banana = kamu suka pisang.
4.      He works in my house = ia bekerja di rumahku.
5.      You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
6.      After many years, they returned to their homeland.
7.      We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
8.      Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?

b. Sebagai objek / objective personal pronoun
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: “me,” “you,” “her,” “him,” “it,” “us,” “you,” and “them.”
1. I love you = Aku cinta padamu.
2. She gives me a book = Ia member saya sebuah buku.

2. Possesive Pronouns (Sebagai kata ganti kempunyaan)
A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are “mine,” “yours,” “hers,” “his,” “its,” “ours,” and “theirs.” Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like “my,” “her,” and “their.”
a. Berfungsi sebagai kata sifat (Adjectives): My, your, his, her, their, our, its,
1) Her mother bought a magazine yesterday.  (Ibunya membeli sebuah majalah kemaren. )
2) That is my pen (Itu pena saya.)
b. Sebagai kata ganti : Mine, yours, his, hers, theirs, ours.
1) This pencil is yours = Pensil ini kepunyaanmu.
2) That book is mine = Buku itu kepunyaanku.
3) The smallest gift is mine
4) This is yours
5) His is on the kitchen counter
6) Theirs will be delivered tomorrow
7) Ours is the green one on the corner

Note :
-          Possesive adjective pronoun should be followed by NOUN
-          Possesive Nominal pronoun cannot be followed by Noun

3. Reflexive Pronouns (Sebagai kata ganti diri sendiri)
You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.
The reflexive pronouns are “myself,” “yourself,” “herself,” “himself,” “itself,” “ourselves,” “yourselves,” and “themselves.” Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.
Contoh :
1) I do it by myself = saya melakukannya sendiri.
2) She washed a plate herself = Ia mencuci piring sendiri.

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